Measurements of physiological, biochemical and behavioural responses, including responses of the animal to standard tests such as:
- quantitatively controlled noxious and non-noxious stimulation of the skin e.g. threshold testing
- the animal's behavioural response to a visual or auditory stimulus
Physiological responses generally reflect changes in the SA and HPA systems and include remote monitoring of changes in heart and respiration rate, blood pressure and stress hormone values e.g. plasma or salivary cortisol.
Biochemical changes in body fluids e.g. blood glucose, acute phase proteins and muscle enzyme activity.
Behavioural responses include precise measurements of the occurrence of well-defined activities and postures.