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Introduction
What is pain?
How is pain produced?
How can pain be assessed?
How is pain relieved?
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CD Purchase

How can Pain be Assessed? > Systematic Assessment

Details, history & exam Practical Assessment Validation

Details of the animal:  

should include age, sex, breed, species, weight and previous history. Younger animals may be more responsive to painful  stimulation but due to limited experience may suffer less pain as a result of association and anticipation. There are both sex and breed differences in responsiveness to similar noxious stimuli and if the observer has knowledge of previous painful experiences by the animal it can help in interpretation of responses.

Clinical history:

   includes appetite, water intake, growth, weight gain and loss. This will generally be information provided by the owner or keeper and should include their assessment of changes in the mental state of the animal. This assessment should be considered according to the owner/keeper’s experience of animals and of the particular animal in question.

Clinical examination:

  if the animal has clinical disease as a result of infectious, toxic, or allergenic agents, deficient or abnormal diets or trauma, it should be subjected to appropriate veterinary investigation and treatment. This should include assessment of pain and the need for analgesic treatment as one of the priorities.

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                                            Revised: 20-10-08