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Introduction
What is pain?
How is pain produced?
How can pain be assessed?
How is pain relieved?
Test your Knowledge
Table of contents
CD Purchase

Details, history & exam
Practical Assessment
Validation

How can Pain be Assessed?

Principles of Assessment Objective Assessment Behaviour Subjective Assessment Systematic Assessment

Systematic Assessment of Animal Pain

The following headings are designed to ensure a broad approach to the recognition and assessment of pain in individual animals. These headings can be used to prompt systematic recording of pain assessment in individual or groups of animals.

  1. Details of the animal

  2. Clinical history of the problem

  3. Clinical examination

  4. Physiological responses to pain

  5. Biochemical responses

  6. Behavioural responses to pain

For practical assessment, under "field" conditions, it would not be possible to record all these factors.
    St Kilda ram

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                                            Revised: 20-10-08